Chilean Wine Regions
In recent years, the wines of Chile have become firmly established on the international wine scene, with the country enjoying a certain heightened fame after its wine industry recovered from a devastating earthquake in 2010. The resilience and dynamism of the Chilean wine industry was apparent for all to see, as they quickly responded to the needs of their grape growers by providing accommodation and support in those turbulent times. Chile has, in a relatively short space of time, risen to the forefront of the global wine industry and its growth and progress continues apace.
Traditionally, the country's reputation was built on value and, particularity in the case of Chilean reds, a forward, ripe, fruity style. However, more recently some impressive and often astounding super-premium wines have being produced, suggesting that the country is really starting to harness the potential of its terroirs. There is still work to be done but in essence the best examples from Chile now compete favorably with their counterparts in Australia and California for example.
Despite being labelled a 'New World' wine producing country, Chile's viticultural history began in the mid-sixteenth century with the arrival of the Spanish Conquistadores. Their missioners planted vines to provide wine for the Catholic mass rituals. The man credited with starting Chile's foray into wine production was Francisco de Aguirre Copiapó, who planted vines in northern Chile. Over the next 100 years planting increased and moved south reaching beyond the Bio Bio River. Chile's renown for its wine production grew as did international exports in the 18th century, by 1831 a total of 19 million vines were planted across the country.
We can trace the modern history of wine production in Chile back to one man, visiting Frenchman Claude Gay. He saw the potential for high quality wine production and convinced the government to create a state body to manage, regulate and promote the emerging Chilean industry. Vineyards plantings multiplied and when Don Silvestre Echazarreta brought the great Bordeaux varieties back from France the country was well and truly placed on the wine map. Grape varieties such as Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot and Sauvignon Blanc flourishing in the benign climate and are noted for being the only surviving clones of grapes that were not affected by the Phylloxera louse that plagues vineyards worldwide. By the late 19th century, Chilean wines were making a name for themselves in European markets, winning award and competitions, culminating in 1889 when a Chilean wine won the 'Grand Prix' in Paris.
In the 20th century, the country's flagship wine industry suffered and entered into a period of decline. The Second World War saw demand for Chilean wine fall, a recession that did not start to abate until the late 1980s. The government levied high taxes on the wine industry and government policy designed to combat alcohol abuse really hurt the nation's winemakers. The late 1970s saw domestic demand drop considerably for Chilean wine and over half the total amount of vineyards were uprooted. Salvation came with the return to democracy in 1990 after the nation’s dictator, Augusto Pinochet was overthrown. A new, stable democracy embraced the country's wine industry and between 1990 and 1993 an additional 10,000 hectares of vines were planted in conjunction with the largest investment programme the Chilean wine industry had ever experienced.
Today, wine producers worldwide cast an envious eye over at Chile's wonderful grape growing climate; its valleys receive a magical combination of soil, sunlight and cool moderating costal breezes, which lead to world class grapes and wine. The dry, warm growing season acts as a natural barrier to vineyards diseases and pests, a most desirable place to grow vines. Outside investors, sensing the potential of Chile's terroirs haveshown great interest in the country, including such famous names as Miguel Torres, Lafite Rothschild and Pernod Ricard. Every year new wines and producers emerge, suggesting that this stunningly beautiful and dramatic corner of the wine map is most definitely on the up!
The modern viticultural map of Chile is today split into five zones. Running from north to south, they are Atacama, Coquimbo, Aconcagua, Valle Central and the Region del Sur. These zones contain a number of sub-regions and these may also be further subdivided. Each region offers a distinct terroir and invariably certain varieties are more suited to a particular sub zone, although there is some overlap in grape variety plantings.
It is important not to underestimate the effect of local mesoclimates or the proximity to the coast or mountains when asking for an overview of Chile’s viticultural climate. Broadly speaking, the country enjoys a benign, warm Mediterranean climate that has facilitated organic grape growing with relative ease; diseases are not generally prevalent in Chile's vineyards. The growing season, while naturally varying from region to region often shows large variation between day time and night time temperatures, the conditions that both red and white varieties thrive on. Elements such coastal fogs, vineyard altitude and proximity to the Andes all conspire to offer the wine grower an extremely varied mosaic of terroirs and growing conditions. Indeed, the landscape and soil variation in Chile is staggering, alluvial clay, sand and loam soils all present and correct. Snow capped Mountains, desserts, wide valleys and dramatic costal scenery - check. This truly is the land of diversity as the following regional overviews will demonstrate.